The recommendations from SPICE, based on its research over the past two years, have been contained in the report D3 Analysis and Recommendations. The report provides the reader with different and updated aspects on policy issues and framework conditions for catalysing procurement of innovation. Furthermore, the deliverable seeks to provide the reader with considerations on different aspects on ‘public procurement of innovative transport and mobility solutions in city environment’ – from updating the reader on most recent considerations on legal aspects to most recent considerations on technical aspects of the following three cluster topics:


  • Electric Vehicles (EV)
  • Intelligent Transport Systems and Services (ITS)
  • Mobility Services

As regards policy issues and framework conditions, public procurement plays an important role in effective delivery of the main European policy targets, like enhanced single market development, competitiveness, innovations, digitalisation and active involvement of SMEs in the economy. This is especially important in the transport and mobility sector where the presence of public sector dominates, also from a financial perspective. Public procurement should be used to create a critical mass on the demand side and to improve efficiency in the allocation of resources in full respect of competition and internal market rules. This is a particularly well-acknowledged approach in the context of the clean and energy-efficient vehicles reducing energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and pollutants in urban mobility.

One barrier to unlocking the full potential of innovative public procurement is fragmentation of (policy) objectives between the administrative levels, silos and organisations. Here, the streamlined and clearly internally and externally communicated policies are key to successful end results. It is equally important to foster the digitalisation of the procurement and to remove the direct obstacles hampering the SME involvement. The open data policies by national or local governments and respective procurement requirements for data sharing and interoperability of interfaces (APIs) can also be a useful tool to accelerate the adoption of innovations and new mobility services.

As regards the legal aspects, it is important to understand the difference between procurement of research and development (R&D) and procurement of innovation, including the concept of public contracts, to initially navigate towards the right strategy for the acquisition of innovation. If the strategy is procurement of commercially scaled volumes, the procuring authorities must plan and decide on which catalysts to choose within the tree main categories of approaches to procurement of innovation: 1) choice of procedure, 2) procurement approaches, and 3) contractual approaches.

Whereas the choice of procurement procedures is very dependent on the solution to procure (high or low tech number of potential suppliers, maturity level etc.), the choice of different procurement approaches is more de-pendent on how you want to design the competition, for example, opening the competition for SMEs or yet unknown solutions. As for contractual approaches, the deliverable lists a set of examples of contractual approaches that can either i) act as catalyst for innovation during contract term or, ii) ensure that the deliverables fulfill the requirements of the contract.

As the legal aspects are all based on the framework of the EU procurement directives, the legal part of the D3 deliverable is concluded with a status and description of the SPICE member states transposition of Directive 2014/24/EU.

The last three chapters of the D3 deliverable contain technical recommendations and considerations for procurement actions within the three aforementioned technical topics.